Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi / Reported Speech in hindi

Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi:  ऐसे कई अवसर आते है जिनमें हमें किसी घटना या क्रिया का वर्णन करने की आवश्यकता होती है, और बहुत बार जिसमें किसी के द्वारा कही गई बातों को दोहराना शामिल होता है।

There comes certain occassions when we need to repeat  some words or description provided by some other people.

इंग्लिश में दो अलग-अलग प्रकार के कथन हैं - प्रत्यक्ष कथन और अप्रत्यक्ष कथन। 

There are two different types of speeches in English - direct speech and indirect speech .

Direct Speech को हिंदी में 'प्रत्यक्ष कथन' और Indirect Speech को 'अप्रत्यक्ष कथन' कहा जाता है। 

जब हम किसीसे आमने सामने बात कर रहे हो तो उसे Direct Speech कहते है। और यदि आपस में हुई बात को हम किसी तीसरे आदमी के साथ शेयर करते है तो उसे Indirect Speech कहा जाता है।

When we are talking to someone face to face, it is called Direct Speech. And if we share the matter between ourselves with a third person, then it is called Indirect Speech. 

जैसे-

मैंने माँ से कहा,"मुझे भूक लगी है। "  -----प्रत्यक्ष कथन 

I said to mother, "I am hungry." ------ direct speech


मैंने माँ से  कहा की मुझे भूक लगी थी।  ------- अप्रत्यक्ष कथन 

I said to mother that I was hungry. --------------------Indirect speech

प्रत्यक्ष कथन के वाक्यों में comma और inverted comma का प्रयोग करना जरूरी है। 

It is necessary to use comma and inverted comma in direct speech sentences.

जैसे-

I said, "I am too much sad."

जब यही बात अप्रत्यक्ष कथन (Indirect Speech) में कहनी हो तो comma और inverted comma को इस्तेमाल करने की जरूरत नहीं होती। 

When the same thing has to be said in Indirect Speech, then comma and inverted comma need not be used.

जैसे-

I said that I was too much sad.


Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi / Reported Speech in hindi
 

Basic Terms of Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi:

Inverted commas के बाहर जो verb होता है उसे Reporting verb कहा जाता है। 
The verb that occurs outside the inverted commas is called Reporting verb.

Inverted commas के अंदर जो sentecne होता है उसे Reporting Speech कहते है। 
The sentecne that occurs inside the inverted commas is called Reporting Speech.

Reporting verb और Reporting Speech को जोड़ने के लिए जिन शब्दों का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है उन्हें Connecting Words कहते है। 
The words that are used to connect the Reporting verb and Reporting Speech are called Connecting Words.

I said, "I need a new bike."

इस वाक्य में -

Reporting verb : said

Reporting Speech : "I need a new bike."

I said that I needed a new bike.

इस वाक्य में -

Connecting Word : that

Examples of Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi:


1] Direct Speech: I said, "I need a new bike."
    प्रत्यक्ष कथन : मैंने कहा ,"मुझे नयी bike चाहिए। "
    
    Indirect Speech: I said that I needed a new bike.
   अप्रत्यक्ष कथन : मैंने कहा की मुझे नयी bike चाहिए। 

2] Direct Speech: Mother said, "Hold this glass of water."
    प्रत्यक्ष कथन : माँ बोली ,"ये पानी का गिलास पकड़ो। "

   Indirect Speech: Mother ordered to hold that glass of water.
     अप्रत्यक्ष कथन : माँ ने मुझे पानी का गिलास पकड़ने को कहा।    

3] Direct Speech: Mr. Patel said, "Are you mad?"
    प्रत्यक्ष कथन : मि. पटेल बोले,"क्या आप पागल हो?"

    Indirect Speech: Mr. Patel asked whether I was mad.
   अप्रत्यक्ष कथन : मि. पटेलने पूछा की क्या मै पागल था। 

4] Direct Speech: John said, "What a wonderful bike!"
    प्रत्यक्ष कथन : जॉन बोला ,"क्या बढ़िया बाइक है!"

    Indirect Speech: John exclaimed that it was a wonderful bike.
    अप्रत्यक्ष कथन : जॉन ने बोला की वह एक बढ़िया बाइक थी। 

5] Direct Speech: Gourav said, "Where is my schoolbag?"
    प्रत्यक्ष कथन : गौरव बोला ,"मेरी स्कूलबैग कहा है?"

    Indirect Speech: Gourav asked where his schoolbag was.
    अप्रत्यक्ष कथन : गौरव ने पुछा की उसकी स्कूलबैग कहाँ थी। 

इन सारे वाक्यों में आपको variation दिख है। कभी 'that' कभी 'to' या कही 'whether' का इस्तेमाल किया गया है। 

अब आपके मन में ये सवाल आया होगा की ये कैसे तै करें की कब क्या use करना है। 

इसके लिए हमें Direct and Indirect Speech के नियम पता करने होंगे। 




Rules of Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi / Direct and Indirect Speech के नियम 

Rule 1:

Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में convert  करते वक्त sentence के tense में बदल होता है। नीचे मैंने इसके details दिए हुए है। 
When converting from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, the tense of reporting speech chaanges. I have given its details below.



Tense in Direct Speech Tense in Indirect Speech Example
Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"There is a holiday on Saturday."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that there was a holiday on Saturday.

Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"I am giving you assignment."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that she was giving us assignment.

Simple Past Tense Past Perfect Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"I gave you assignment."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that she had given us assignment.

Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"I have given you assignment."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that she has given us assignment.

Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"I had given you assignment."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that she had given us assignment.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"I have been giving you assignment."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that she had been giving us assignment.

Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense Direct Speech: Teacher said,"I was giving you assignment."

Indirect Speech: Teacher said that she had been giving us assignment.


Important to note: अगर Reporting verb, Present Tense या  Future Tense में हो मतलब 'say', 'says' या 'will say', तो Indirect Speech  में Tense नहीं बदलता। 

If the reporting verb is in  Present Tense or Future Tense, means 'say', 'says' or 'will say', then tense of reporting speech does not change in Indirect Speech.

जैसे -
He says, "I am in zoo."  ------------------ simple present tense
He says that he is in zoo. ---------------- simple present tense

They say,"Yesterday was a holiday." ---------------- simple past tense
They say that yesterday was a holiday. --------------simple past tense

She will say,"I am not interested in this topic." ----------------simple present tense
She will say that she is not interested in that topic." -----------simple present tense



Rule 2:

इतनाही नहीं जब हम किसी वाक्य को  Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में convert  करते है तब कुछ शब्दों के रूप भी बदलते है। 

Not only this, when we convert a sentence from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, then the forms of some words also change.



Direct Speech Indirect Speech Example
this that Direct Speech: Girish said,"Keep this glass on table."

Indirect Speech: Girish said to keep that glass on table.

these those Direct Speech: Girish said,"Keep these glasses on table."

Indirect Speech: Girish said to keep those glasses on table.

today that day Direct Speech: Girish said,"Today my cousin is coming."

Indirect Speech: Girish said that his cousin was coming on that day.

yesterday the day before Direct Speech: Girish said,"My cousin came yesterday."

Indirect Speech: Girish said that his cousin had came the day before.

tomorrow the next day Direct Speech: Girish said,"My cousin will come tomorrow."

Indirect Speech: Girish said that his cousin would come the next day.


Rule 3:

जब Reporting Speech वैश्विक सत्य (Universal Truth) होता है तो उसका tense नहीं बदला जाता। 

When the Reporting Speech is the Universal Truth, its tense is not changed.


1] Direct Speech: Teacher said,"Earth rotates around the Sun."

    Indirect Speech: Teacher said that Earth rotates around the Sun.

2] Direct Speech: Bhavesh said to Mangesh,"There are 24 hours in a day."

    Indirect Speech: Bhavesh said to Mangesh that there are 24 hours in a day.

3] Direct Speech: Shirin said,"Protons, elecrtrons and neutrons are the three elements of an atom."

    Indirect Speech: Shirin said that Protons, elecrtrons and neutrons are the three elements of an atom.

आपको ये तो मालूम होगा ही की वाकय के बहुत सारे प्रकार होते है। उस हर प्रकार के वाक्य में  Direct and Indirect Speech के नियम अलग अलग है।

Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi for Asserative Sentences:

जब किसी Asserative Sentence को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते है तब 'that' ये connecting word  आता है। 

When an Asserative Sentence changes from direct speech to indirect speech, then 'that' is used as connecting word.

Examples:


Direct Speech Indirect Speech
My brother said,"I like to read books." My brother said that he liked to read books.

Teacher said,"Our school manages all the things."
Teacher said that our school managed all the things.

Preeti said,"Cooking is my favourite job."
Preeti said that cooking was her favourite job.

Ganga said,"I visited Mumbai last year."
Ganga said that she had visited Mumbai last year.

Pappu said," I cannot dance."
Pappu said that he could not dance.

Jayesh said,"He needs to fix the errors."
Jayesh said that he needed to fix the errors.



Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi for Imperative Sentences:


जब किसी Imperative Sentence को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते है तब 'to' ये connecting word  आता है। यहाँ पे tense change नहीं होता। 

When an Imperative Sentence is changed from direct speech to indirect speech then the connecting word should be 'to'. Tense of reporting speech again does not change here.

Examples:


Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Teacher said,"Keep your mouths shut." Teacher ordered us to keep mouths shut.
Sagar said,"Please help my sister." Sagar requested to help his sister.
Mr. Joshi said,"You should speak in English." Mr. Joshi suggested me to speak in English.
Sneha said,"Prepare your project as soon as possible." Sneha ordered him to prepare project as soon as possible.
Aunty said,"Please allow me to join you." Aunty requested  to allow her to join them.
Father said,"Everyone should take care of health." Father suggested everyone to take care of health.


Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi for Exclamatory Sentences:


जब किसी Exclamatory Sentence को direct speech से indirect speech में बदलते है तब 'that' ये connecting word  आता है। 

When an exclamatory sentence is changed from direct speech to indirect speech, then 'that' is the connecting word used.

Examples:



Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Sameer said,"Hurray! I found it." Sameer exclaimed that he found it.
Nilima said,"Wow! It's a great news." Nilima exclaimed that it was a great news.
Tushar said,"Alas! He was robbed." Tushar exclaimed that he had robbed.
Prakash said,"Oh! I will refill it." Prakash exclaimed that he would refill it.


Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi for Interrogative Sentences:

Interrogative Sentence २ प्रकार है- 
a] yes-no type question
b] wh-question

Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi for yes-no type question:

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में 'whether' या 'if' ये connecting word  आता है। 

The connecting word is 'whether' or 'if' in these types of sentences.

Examples:



Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Mohan said,"Are you mad?" Mohan asked whether I was mad.
Garima said,"Have you completed your work?" Garima asked if I had completed my work.
Gautam said,"Is this your bag?" Gautam asked whether that was my bag.
Fatima said,"Do you know him?" Fatima asked if I knew him.
Shreya said,"Did you present in the hall?" Shreya asked whether I had been present in the hall.
Doctor said,"Do you brush your teeth twice a day?" Doctor asked if he brushed his teeth twice a day.

Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi for wh-question:

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में 'wh-word' connecting word  के तोर पर इस्तेमाल होता है।  

In these types of sentences, 'wh-word' is used as connecting word.

Examples:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Mother said,"Where were you? Mother asked where I was.
Miss Mona said,"Who is the principal of this school?" Miss Mona asked who was the principal of taht school.
Geeta said,"When will the train arrive?" Geeta said when the train would arrive.
Fatima said,"What is wrong with you?" Fatima asked what was wrong with me.
Farukh said,"How do you know the secret?" Farukh asked how I did know the secret.
My sister said,"Which is the best time to study?" My sister asked which was the best time to study.


Exercise on Direct and Indirect Speech in hindi :

Convert below sentences of direct speech into indirect speech


1] I said, "I found some rice on the floor."

2] My brother says, "I will never tell a lie."

3] He said, "The doctor was in his cabin."

4] Teacher said, "Stand in a queue."

5] Gourav said, "You should not spread fake news."

6] Ram will say, "I was not available on sunday."

7] Shreya said, "I will catch the bus early in the morning."

8] Papa said, "Don't travel by bus."

9] An engineer said, "Please water the slab daily."

10] I said, " Earth is the only planet which has a living world."




2 Comments

We are happy to reply to your comments

  1. Where is use say,says and sayt

    ReplyDelete
  2. agar 'say' aur 'says' ye reporting verbs ho to reporting speech ka tense change nahi hota. jaise-

    I say,"This is my shirt."
    I say that this is my shirt.

    He says," The moon is shining."
    He says that the moon is shining.

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

We are happy to reply to your comments

Previous Post Next Post