Earth is the only planet that has liquid water on its surface. About 71 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water and oceans contain about 96 percent of the earth’s water, only 2.5 percent of the water we can use for our essential things. The human body requires about 3 liters of water per day. Water is one of the most important elements of our life and environment.
Water has a special importance in the life of human beings. Not a single day passes when we do not use water. If this water, which we consider to be our life, gets polluted, will it be possible for us to survive?
Reasons of Water Pollution
Water pollution occurs as a result of various human activities and developmental factors.
Though the water we drink seems to be clear, it is contaminated with microscopic pollutants.
There are many reasons for water being polluted. The biggest reason among them is the chemical waste released out of industries and factories. This waste is released into rivers and nearby water bodies without any primary process. Due to which water pollution occurs.
The second reason is the garbage thrown from the houses. It is seen many times that the waste generated in the house is thrown by humans into the nearby water sources. These include plastic bottles, garlands and flowers offered to God, bags etc. Some of these things rot by lying there and create filth.
Chemical substances used in agriculture such as insecticides flow with the water and dissolve in the nearby river drains, due to which that water becomes polluted.
Cleaning pets, utensils, clothes etc. in rivers is also another reason due to which water gets polluted. Not only this, many people are seen taking a bath in the rivers.
Ships carrying mineral oil through the sea route crash many times. The oil carried by them spreads in the sea water which forms a layer of oil over the water surface.
Acid rain is also one of the most important causes of water pollution. Due to mixing of contaminated water of this rain in water sources, the possibilities of water contamination increase.
Eutrophication is a process in which increased levels of nutrients in water bodies result in the growth of algae in the water. It reduces oxygen in the water. It devastatingly affects water quality, fish and other aquatic inhabitants.
Impact of water pollution
The first and foremost effect of water pollution is water scarcity. The polluted water is highly unfit for human use and would require processing. Certain toxins in water can increase the growth of aquatic weeds while killing off major aquatic life.
The polluted water is not fit for drinking by all the living components around. Due to this many diseases are possible to spread like cholera, typhoid, jaundice, cholera, gastric, stomach related diseases etc.
Such water is also harmful for the aquatics. Not only this, but the amount of oxygen in polluted water is also less, so oxygen is not available in abundance for all the animals and plants living in the water.
Polluted and chemical-laden water is also harmful for agriculture. This has a very bad effect on the crop. Plants grown in the fields also fell victim to many diseases. The use of such water also reduces the yield of agricultural land.
Measures to prevent water pollution
Regular cleaning of drains is very important to stop water pollution.
Chemical water released from factories and industries should be processed before releasing.
Throwing domestic garbage, sewage, etc. into sources of water should be avoided. Washing animals, bathing, washing clothes or utensils, all these activities should be avoided.
Pesticides and other chemical substances should be encouraged to be used sparingly in agriculture, fields, gardens. So that these substances can not get into the water sources and pollute the water less.
Regular checking and testing of ponds, rivers and other water sources is beneficial. The rules imposed by the government should be strictly followed.